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CSRF: What Is Cross-site Request Forgery?

Often abbreviated to CSRF and often pronounced as “Sea-Surf” is an attack against a Web Application that abuses an application’s trust in the user. An attacker’s aim is to cause a function to execute on the application using the user’s authentication credentials simply by causing the user’s browser to request that function in the normal way, but from a malicious site.

For example, a user navigates to a malicious site and this site in turn sends a request to the vulnerable function on the vulnerable web site. This is where “Cross-site” comes from, it is a malicious site sending a request to the vulnerable site.

A protection mechanism exists to prevent domains from messing with each other, known as Same-Origin Protection (SOP). This protection prevents one domain from processing responses from other domains and there-by generally prevents any malicious two-way interaction between websites. However, it only prevents the malicious application from processing the response, it does not prevent the victim application from receiving and processing a request. Some requests can cause damage without the requirement for a response.

Take the function for changing a user’s password. If an application has a change password function that is accessed in a way such as:

and the response is simply “Success” this could be abused by attackers for the purposes of account take-over. The attack would simply be that the victim navigates to a malicious site where that site sends the above GET request to the vulnerable web-server.
The attacker can place the payload on a malicious site with HTML such as:

<img src="" width=0 height=0>

The user’s web browser will by default pass along the user’s cookie-based access token to the victim website and as far as the site is concerned the user has changed their password. Allowing the attacker to simply navigate to in their own browser and login using the password “Password123”.

There are two simple ways to fix this issue, either is generally sufficient independently. The first is for the application to check the “Referer” header in the HTTP request, if it’s not coming from a trusted site then the request should be denied. The second way to fix this issue is to embedded in the page body a security token that is required for each function to execute, as the token is embedded in the page body an attacker would not be able to determine what this is as Same-Origin Policy blocks the attacker from reading responses!

Alternative ways to: Run Windows Commands Remotely

Most Penetration Testers will know and love Metasploit’s PsExec module for running commands on remote Windows machines, if you’re not familiar with it – it allows you to take a compromised Local Administrator account and use it to execute commands on the remote machine (or to upload Meterpreter of course! These methods all require the ability to write to Admin$ on the remote machine, which basically means a Local Administrator account.

Continue reading: Alternative ways to: Run Windows Commands Remotely

Extracting Password Hashes from a Domain Controller

On a Penetration Test, once you’ve scored Domain Admin (DA) Access, it’s generally a good idea to take a look at the hashes stored in Active Directory (AD). Not least because it’ll point out all of the weak accounts that you missed on your journey to DA but also because password reuse across accounts may get you into other systems, such as Linux servers or the network infrastructure.

There are a few methods of dumping hashes and every PenTester I expect knows one of these, but I’ve included a few as it’s always good to have a backup plan.

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Burp Suite Keyboard Shortcuts!

If you use Burp Suite a lot then you’ll no doubt love the interface – moving between tools is really fast and the interface is just friendly; however I recently heard someone complaining that it’s annoying that it’s mouse-only and you can’t use hotkeys to swap between tabs and move between tools…but you can!

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SOP: Same-Origin Policy Basics

Same-Origin Policy (SOP) is a critical part of the security implemented within a web browser. It’s the part of your browser’s security system that prevents malicious pages from reading confidential information from other sites. So can’t read data from because it’s blocked by SOP.

Continue reading: SOP: Same-Origin Policy Basics